XFree86 is a freely redistributable open-source implementation of the X Window System that runs on UNIX(R) and UNIX-like (like Linux, the BSDs, Mac OS X (aka Darwin) and Solaris x86 series) operating systems and OS/2. XFree86 is the underlying software that is between the hardware and graphical user interface (aka gui) that people see and use. If you are using KDE, GNOME, Enlightenment, Blackbox, AfterStep, twm or fvwm then you are already using and running XFree86 as these run as XFree86 clients.
Although Apple includes XFree86 in a special, optimized form in Mac OS X (see X11 for Mac OS X, above, for more information), this version is a little more on the "bleeding edge" and may be used on earlier Mac OS X releases as well.
The version 4.8.0 release includes the XDarwin application. Previous versions of the XDarwin application (up to v1.0.6) were available from the "XonX" site as updates to XFree86 4.1. With this addition, you can run both X Window and Aqua simultaneously - a very nice benefit. X Window on OS X has grown out of infancy into early adulthood, and that's a good thing indeed. (Thanks to Adrian Umpleby for clarifications to these descriptions.)
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Can't find what you're looking for? Try a search:
Also, if you have an older Mac, be sure to check out the "Classic" applications page for more options.
Finally, take a look at ALEMIA if you think you know that name of an application, but aren't quite sure.
Mac OS X has a huge amount of TCP/IP-based server software built into it that I don't specifically cover here. Your "Sharing" Preference Pane allows you to enable and disable these services with a click of the mouse. The software running behind the scenes to provide many of these services is generally of the open source variety. The standard release of Mac OS X includes, among many others:
Of course, Mac OS X Server includes many more, in addition to offering more recent versions of many of the above servers.
Graham Orndorff has written a superb collection of articles on setting up email servers and secure email clients on Mac OS X.
These are applications that are newer and of potential interest, but which I haven't yet selected for permanent inclusion. Have a look, and let me know if you think they deserve to be part of the permanent collection!